Viluppuram District was earlier a part of South Arcot District. It was then bifurcated and became a separate district on 30th September 1993. Because of this, the history of Viluppuram district closely resembles that of Cuddalore.

    From the 1st to the 4th centuries, the Chola were the rulers of the area, Karikala Chola was the most famous and powerful individual of the time. The grip of Chola rule was broken when the Cholas were overthrown by Simha Vishnu Pallava and the region came under the Pallava rule. Vijayalaya Chola again revived Chola rule. This was the beginning of great Chola Empire. Cholas regained their lost position but with the rise of Jatavarman Sundara Pandya-1 (1251), Chola supremacy came to an end. The sway of Pandyas lasted for over 50 years, followed by Muslim domination from 1334 to 1378. By 1378, the region came under the rule of Vijayanagara Empire and Nayaks were appointed as the rulers of the region.

    In 1677, Shivaji took the Gingee area with the assistance of Golkonda forces. Then came the Mughals. During the Mughal regime, both the English and French acquired settlements in South Arcot. During the Anglo-French rivalry, the entire district was turned into a battleground. After some time, the entire area came under the control of British East India Company. It remained under British authority until 1947 when India became independent.

    The Principal District Court, Viluppuram was earlier a part of South Arcot District. It was then bifurcated as per G.O.Ms.NO.997 Home (Courts III) Department Dated:05.07.1993. The Villupuram District Court was inaugurated on 27th November 1993.